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Saturday, February 23, 2008


Bashkeram Orchard
Kashgar has always enjoyed the reputation of being a "Land of Fruits and Melons," with Bashkeram ranking first in the area. Among the great variety of fruits in Bashkeram , apricot alone has more than twenty strains, and grape, apple and pear have nearly twenty strains each.Also there are many strains of cherry, plum, peach, quince, date and so on. Each of the fruits has early middle and late ripening varieties. In May, the white, sweet and tasty mulberry ripens and , from then on, apricot, cherry, fig, sweet-kernel peach, jasper peach, flat peach , pear, apple,grape, pomegranate and pistachio and badam, the high-valued dry nut fruits in China,ripen one after another. The fruit harvest does not end until the beginning of November.You will find it easily by the help of local guide or taxi driver.
Chini Bagh
In Uyghur,Beautiful garden,was the home of for 28 years of the most famous of British India's representatives in Kashgar,Sir George Macartney and his wife.The gardes are destroyed to make room for large tourist hotel,Chini Bagh Hotel,and behind it id the house where the Macartneys lived.Now reserved for official visitors.
Russion Consulate
The once luxurios. Russion Consulate (now Seman Hotel) was the home of the powerful Nikolai Petrovsky,Macartney's chief adversary in the Great game.Now it is made room for tourists.If any one want to check in,have to make reservation through any organization in Kashgar.

Three Immortal Budda Caves

It is 10km. Away from Kashgar on the road to Torugart Pass.From opposite side of Qakmak river,it is visible but it is impossible to see inside without taking special way.It is 30m above of river at the cliff.Dating from the second and third century,they are the earliest Buddist caves extant in China.However,if you are intentupon seeing them,arrangements must be made by KMA.Karakul Lake It si 190km from Kashgar om the Kara Koram Highway with the elevation of 3600m aboe sea level..It is on the lap of tw giants,Muztagh Ata regardec "the father of ice mountains",Kongur reputated with more avalanche.It is rare highland lake in the the lake,there are yurst and restaurant available for tourists to stop and over night.In a fine day,You get a good view of Muz- tagh Ata and Kongur and snow-cappad peaks , flocks of animals,grassland are all invertedly reflected in the water,wich looks magistic.



The industry of Kashgar was developed very slowly. Nowdays variors industrial sys-tems have been completed, including coal, electric power, cement, building materials, chemistry, farming machinery,textile, leather products, ceramics, paper-making and food processing industries. Cotton printing and dyeing,cement producing, and hydropower are the key industrial enterprises of Kashgar. The highway network, Taking Kashgari as a hub,Are: Tibet-Xinjiang Highway crossing the Kunlun Mountains with a total length of 1,184 kilometers. Xinjiang-Qinhai Highway (go along the southern Silk Road) Famous Karakoram highway(KKH) Highway to Kyrgyzstan via Torugart Pass and Erkashtam Pass Kashgar-Urunqi Highway Kashgar Prefecture has 415,620 hectares of cultivated land, 1.33 million hectares of reclaimable l-and and 2.26 million hectares of pastureland, of which 239,467 hectares is first rate. The content of organic substances of the soil generally ranges from 0.5 to 10 percent. Wheat, maize and cotton are the main crops.In Kashgar also grows rice, barley, highland barley, rape, sesame, peanuts and flax.
Kashar has two institutions fro advanced learning, one is branch of the Central Television Universiy,Kasshgar teacher's college, seven specialized secondary schools, 172 ordinary secondary schools and 1,098 elementary schools.There are fourteen professional organizations fro litireture, art, photograph, dance. Kashgar Daily is published here in Uyghur and Chinese. Kasgar has fine television broadcasting system and tlecom system.International call and internet is available everywhere.Most of the part can receive CCTVprogram in different chanels. l.



Kashgar is 141,600 square kiolmeters in total area and between latitude 35 20 to 40 18 north and longitude 73 20 to 79 57 east in the sourthen part of Xinjiang, is contiguous with the Taklimakan Desert on its east and borders Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India to its west and southwest respectively. The city of Kashgar, a place of strategic importance in south Xinjiang, has an area of fifteen square kilometers with an average elevation of 1289.5 meters. The city is located between latitude 39 25 to 39 35 north and longitude 75 56 to 76 04 east and lies 1,473 kilometers from Urumchi,capital city of of Xinjianng Uihgur Autonomous Region.

Kashi Prefecture has a population of 3.3 million, of which the Uygur nationality comprises 92.92 percent, the Han, 5.6 percent and the Tajik, 1.03 percent, with the other 0.45 percent made up of Hui, Kirgiz, Ozbek, Kazak, Manchu, Xibe, Mongol, Tatar and Daur nationalities.The city of Kashar has a population of 200,000, 74.62 percent of which is Uyghur and 24.32 percent of which is Han Chinese and other minorities.
Kashar Prefecture has one city (Kashag) and eleven counties: Tokkuzak(Shufu in Chinese), Yengishar (Shule), Yengisar, Yopurga, Payzawatt, Yarkant(Shache), Poskam(Zepu), Kahilik(Yecheng), Markit, Maralbashi (Bachu) and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County,under its jurisdiction. There are twenty-six towns and subdistrict offices, 134 townships, 2,310 villagers' committees and ninety-six neighborhood committees in Kashgar.
Kashgar is located in the temparate zone of a continental climate. The climate in this area varies greatly because of the varied topograghy. Specifically, the Kashgar can be divid-ed into zones plain climate, desert climate, mountain climate, the Pamir Plateau climate and the Kunlun Mountains climate. Located in the plain climate zone with the clear four seasons, Kashgar has a long summer and a short winter. The annual mean temperature is 11.7 C, with the lowest temperature of -24.4° C in January and the hottest 40.1°C in July. The frost-free period averages 215 days. The annual mean precipitation is 27 millimeters. The two river system of the Yarkant River and the Kashgar River in this area have five big rivers with a total annual runoff of 10.9 to 11.9 billion cubic meters. The volume of underground water in this area is about one billion cubic meters. The per capita water volume of the whole prefecture is about 5,000 cubic meters, twice the national figure. The hydropower reserves of the prefecture are about 7.6 million kilowatt, 1,2 million of which can be easily exploited. Mineral resoures in the prefecture include coal, mica, asbestos,g-ypsum, limestone, natural sulphur, vanadium, titaniun, iron copper, zinc, nickel, phosphorus, beryllium, white marble and so on. Oil deposits, in particular, are considerably large and several of oil wells have been drilled in Kasgar. Flora resources in the prefecture include mountain vegetation, plain vegetation, oasis vegetation, desert vegetation and marshland vegetation. The proportion of forested-land is 1.7 percent with 94,667 hectares of primitive forests. In Kashgar grows variety of trees,sush as poplar, willow, mulberry, narrow-leaved oleaster, Chinese scholartree, Chinese parasol, pine, China fir, cypress, divesiform-leaved poplar and red willow. Average Temperature per month   Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecMaximum 0 4 14 22 26 30 32 31 26 20 10 1Minimum -11 -6 2 9 13 16 19 18 12 5 -2 -8


Kashgar is a important hub on the Old Silk Road,a vibrant Islamic centre within Chinese territory. It is the largest oasis city in Chinese Central Asia and 90 per cent of its population of over 3,000,,000 are Uygur.Only in The city is populating 300,000. Kashgar's importance derives from its stratehic position at the foot of the Pamir Mountains, commanding access to the high glacial passes of the Silk Road routes into Central Asia, India and Persia. The weary trade caravans plodding west on the northern and southern routes met up at Kashgar, the desert hazards and demons finally behind them. Merchants bound for China thawed out after descending to Kashgar from the peaks of the Pamirs or the Karakorams, and exchanged their stolid yaks and exhaused packhorses for camles to convey their merchandese into Inner province of China. Kashgar Has a history of more than 2'000 years. the earlist reference appeared in Persian documents referring to an alliance of Tushlan tribes, who founded their capital here. Kashgar was posibly the first of the Buddhist kingdoms of the Tarim basin. In the second century AD, Hinayana Buddhism flourished here and continued to do so until the ninth or tenth century. During this period Indian and Persian cultural influences were strong. Xuan Zang noted that the Kashgaris had green eyes-perhaps a reference to Aryan origins-and that for their writing they take their model from India....The disposition of the men is fierce and impetuous, and they are mostly false adn deceitful. They make light of decorum and politeness, and esteem learning but little. In the first century AD, during the Han Dynasty, China lost its power over the Tarim Basin. The great General Ban Chao was dispatched to subdue the wild kingdoms of Silk Road that had aligned themselves with the Xiongnu against the Chinese. He took the kingdoms of Kashgar, Hetian and Loulan either by brute force or cunning strategy, installed pro-Chinese rulers and reopened the southern Silk Road to trade. Ban Chao remained in Chinese Central Asia for 31 years, crushing rebellions and establishing diplomatic relations with more than 50 states in the Western Regions. Accompanied by horsemen arrayed in bright red leather,he himself went as far west as Merv and made contacts with Parthia,Babylonia and Syria. In the early seventh century,Kashgar recognized the suzerainty of Tang China, which garrisoned the city. However, the Chinese were soon forced to withdraw between 670and 694, when Tibet expanded its territories throughout the southern oases of Tarim Basin.Between the tenth and 12th centuries the Kharakhanid Khanate, a loose mondic alliance of the Qarluq Turkic tribes, controlled the area between Bokhara and Hetian from its capital in Kashgar. The Sunni Muslim, Satuq Bughra Khan, was the first king of the Kharakhanid of Kashgar; he and his successors carried on bloody jihads against the still-Buddhist kingdoms of yarkant and Hotan. These battles, along with fierce Kharakhanid internecine struggles, disrupted the caravan trade, and East-West trade was increasingly forced to relay on the sea routes. Following the death of Chaghatai, who inherited the region from his father, Ghengis Khan,there followed numerous succession wars. Only briefly during the mid-14th century, when Telug Timur had his capital in Kashgar, was a degree of calm and stability restored,But Tamerlane's armies were soon to lay waste to the Kingdom of Kashgaria. In the 16th century,Kashgar came under the ruler of a religious leader, or khoja, whose colleagues formed a powerful clique in Bokhara and Samarkand. A theological split saw the formation of two opposing sects, the Black and White Mountaineers,which began a bloody see-sawing of power between Kashgar and Yarkant that ended `only with Qing intervention two centuries later. The Khojas attempted to return to power in Kashgar no fewer than six times,frequently backed by the Khokand Khanate and aided by Kirgiz nomadic horsemen,bringing fearful reprisals on the citizens. An unfortunate observer of the khojas' last atempt in 1857 was a German,Adolbhus Schlagintweit, whose throat was cut because of his arrogant comment that the three-month siege of Kashgar would have taken his countrymen a mere three days. Kashar was substantially fortified during the short but violent reign of Yakup Beg, who ruled Kashgaria from 1866 to 1877. This infamous soldier from Khokand ruled most of Xinjing, from Kashgar to Urumqi,Turpan and Hami,concluded treaties with Britain and Russia, and had the support of the Ottoman Empire. In 1869, Robert Shew, a British trader and unoffical dilomat, became the first Englishman to visit Kashgar and Kashgar, and was able to command two audiences with Yakub Beg,even though he was under virtual house arrest for the duration of his stay in the city.He wrote of Kashgar:'Intering the gateway, we passed throgh several large quadrangles whose sides were lined with rank of brilliantly attired guards, all sitting in solem silence so that they seemed to form part of the architecture of the building....Entire rows of these men (were)clad in silken robes and many seemed to be of high rank judging from the richness of their equipment.' After a leisurely three-year advance on Xinjiang, the 60,000 strong Chinese army of Zuo Zongtang suppressed the Muslim rebellions in Gansu and then moved southwest through the oasis towns, eventually ending Yakub Beg's rule in 1877. Yakub Beg fled to Kashgar where he died-rumoured to have either had a stroke or poisoned himself.In 1884,Qing government establish Xinjiang as province first.As anti-Chinese Muslim rebellions broke out throughout Xinjiang in the 1930s, a pan-Turkic Islamic movement based in Kashgar declared an Independent Muslim Republic of Eastern Turkestan.In 1949,the three arear-revalutionary army accept the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party,xinjiang entered a new construction. The Kashgar prefecture administers 11 counties,one city with a population of over 3 million. It is one of the main agricultural areas of Xinjing,producing cotton,rice,wheat,corn,beans and fruit.

The Turkic Language Family

The Turkic language family consists of some thirty languages. Traditionally, the Turkic languages are classified according to the word for foot (Samoilovich 1922), which divides the Turkic language family into two main branches. In the central Turkic languages (of the Oguz, Kypchak and Chagatay subgroups) the word for foot is *ayak, which ultimately developed from an older form *adak. The periferal Turkic languages (the Northeastern Turkic languages, Khalaj and Chuvash), spoken along the outer rim of the Turkic linguistic area, have developed along different lines than the central Turkic languages; they have retained this older form *adak in some way, and did not develop *y from *d. Mostly for geographical reasons, Western Yugur has sometimes been considered a dialect of Modern Uygur, together with Salar. Salar and Modern Uygur, however, both belong to the *ayak branch of Turkic languages.The Turkic languages according to subgroups Subgroup Language Foot Mountain Yellow Oguz Turkish ayak dagh sarï Gagauz ayak dagh sarï Azeri ayag dagh sarï Turkmen ayak daagh saarï Salar ayax tagh sarï Kypchak Kazak ayaq tau sarï Karakalpak ayaq tau sarï Nogay ayak taw sarï Kumyk ayaq taw sari Karachay-Balkar ayaq tau sarï Karaim ayaq tau sarï Tatar ayaq tau sarï Bashkir ayaq tau harï Kyrgyz ayak too sarï Altay ayak tuu sarï Chagatay Modern Uygur ayaq tagh seriq Lop ayaq taq sariq Uzbek oyoq tagh sariq Mogoli ayaq taq sariq Northeast Yakut atax tïa arïï Dolgan atak tïa arïï Tuva *adak dagh sarïgh Tofa *adak dagh sarïgh Khakas azax tagh sarïgh Shor azax tagh sarïgh Chulym azax ... sarïgh Western Yugur azaq thagh sarïgh Khalaj hadaq taag saarugh Chuvash ura tu s'urâ In general, the Turkic language family is fairly homogeneous, and some Turcologists refer to the vernaculars of this family as dialects, rather than as separate languages. Many of the Turkic languages in the table above have been given a separate language status for political and/or geographical reasons, rather than for linguistic ones. The main linguistic criterion for considering two vernaculars as dialects of a single language, rather than as two separate languages, is mutual intelligibility. An obvious problem is that this criterion can be interpreted with some flexibility: two short studies assessing the mutual intelligibility between Turkish and Azeri diverged between 66% and 92% mutual intelligibility!On the level of individual words, mutual comprehensibility can be high. Some basic words occur in nearly all Turkic languages in nearly the same form, and a speaker of Azeri can understand a speaker of Western Yugur when s/he says aht, horse (at in Azeri), or pash, head (bash in Azeri). Other basic words differ: for instance, the Western Yugur word for nose is qarq, from an older Turkic form *kañïrïk, nose or bridge or septum of the nose, while the Azeri word for nose is burun, from an older Turkic form *burun, nose or front. This word survives in Western Yugur as phorn, meaning only front or before. Some words only seem to be similar but are not. For instance, Karakalpak zhoq, no(t), is the equivalent of Turkish yok, and not of Turkish çok, much. Modern Uygur bilen, with, is equivalent to Turkish ile, not to Turkish bilen, knowing.On the level of phrases and texts, however, mutual comprehensibility rapidly decreases, certainly with regard to languages of other subgroups. It will take a speaker of Azeri some time to figure out that Western Yugur senïñ atqa ni tighik-i? means: what is your name?, and s/he may remain puzzled at reading entire Western Yugur texts.Independent from the question of their status, whether language or dialect, the following vernaculars belong closer together. The very similar vernaculars Karachay and Balkar have been grouped together as dialects of one language, although the speakers of these dialects are geographically separated. Kazak and Karakalpak are very similar, but have been given a separate language status. Also Khakas, Chulym and Shor are linguistically closely related, but have been given a separate language status. Dolgan is a diaspora dialect of Yakut, having developed independently for some 300 years. Gagauz, spoken in Bulgaria and Moldavia, developed from a Turkish dialect that spread in the Balkans during the Ottoman conquests, and was greatly influenced by the surrounding Slavonic languages. Uzbek, closely related to Modern Uygur, has been greatly influenced by Persian. Tatar and Bashkir are closely related, as are Tuva and Tofa. Tofa has very recently obtained the status of a separate language. Also Kyrgyz and Altay are more closely related; the Altay language, however, has been influenced by the neighbouring language Khakas.


Tuesday, February 19, 2008


经济原则 力提甫·托乎提(博士生导师,教授)

在最简方案中经济原则占主要地位。也就是说,人类语言行为遵守经济原则,生成语法的描写也应反映经济原则。其实经济原则贯穿了人类一切活动,语言活动也不例外。这里的大道理是不言而喻的,即宇宙的空间和时间是无限的,而人类资源和人的精力是有限的。为了使自己有限的精力或资源能延续到更多的空间和时间,人必须遵守经济原则,能节省的就应节省。这一原则在语言活动中有无数的表现。句法上的表现就是其中之一。最简方案的假设是,假定有一套固定的词项,人脑的运算系统可以从这套词项中推导出好几种不同的推导式。但相比之下,只有符合经济原则的那一个推导式才算合格或合乎语法。其他几个推导式会失败(crash)或被看作不合语法。当然,经济原则和合乎语法也不是一回事。这些概念都是相对而言的。Marantz(1995)指出,假定有一个“懒惰性”的经济原则,它不要求运算系统做任何事情。如果这一原则占主导地位,我们可能无法生成语音和逻辑结构上合乎语法的结构来。因为最符合“懒惰性”经济原则的做法就是把一套词项原封不动地堆在一起,不做任何运算操做。但同时再假定生成合乎语法的结构的需求高于或强于“懒惰性”原则,这时运算系统可能用尽可能少的操做来把这套词项聚合在一起。从理论上讲,在可能出现的所有推导式中,运算系统投入精力最少的、最接近“懒惰性”原则的那个推导式会在竞争中胜出,成为这套词项最符合语法的推导式。Marantz(同上)曾把语言学上的经济原则分为三个子原则,即最短程移位(shortest Move)原则、延缓(Procrastinate)原则、和利己(Greed)原则。让我们简要讨论一下这三个子原则。


Monday, February 18, 2008


(上海电力学院 外语系,上海 200090)
摘 要:从语音、词汇、语法和语用4个方面探讨了英语歧义现象,提出歧义是一种普遍而重要的语言现象,歧义分析有助于提高理解和运用语言的能力.  关键词:歧义;歧义分析;意义;语言结构Study on English Ambiguity  WUXiu-ling  (Dept.of Foreign Languages,Shanghai University of Electric Power,Shanghai 200090,China)  Abstract:This paper discusses English ambiguity at four levels,phonological,lexical,grammaticaland pragmatical.It points out that understanding ambiguity phenomenon is important since it widelyexists.Ambiguity analysis can help improve the ability in language understanding and languageapplication.  Key words:ambiguity;ambiguity analysis;meaning;language form  

歧义是语言结构形式与其意义之间的一种特殊关系.一种语言结构具有一个以上的意义则被称为歧义.它可以是由于一个词表示诸多意义,一个结构形式体现几种结构层次关系,或一个言语表现不同的意图或含义等产生的.歧义现象在语言运用过程中普遍存在.英语歧义性探讨在语言教学、翻译理论和实践、文学语言研究等方面具有一定的作用,可以帮助人们提高理解和运用语言的能力.1 语音歧义    语音歧义(Phonological Ambiguity)是指在谈话中由于语音有歧义而使听话人可能产生多种理解,其表现形式为同音异形异义词、同形同音异义词,以及由于连读、弱读等造成的语音歧义.1.1 同音异形异义词歧义  英语中有些词,如bear熊,bare赤裸的;flower花,flour面粉;hear听见,here这里;hour小时,our我们的;meat肉,meet遇见;rite仪式,right正确;sight视力,site地基;sun太阳,son儿子;sew缝纫,sow播种;their他们的,there在那里等.它们的发音相同,拼写不同,表达的意义也不同,在口语交际时有时会产生误解.比如在句子[aihvθrunflau′wei]中,就会出现下面两种解释:  (1)Ihave thrown the flower away.  我把花扔了.  (2)Ihave thrown the flour away.我把面粉扔了.  当然,此类歧义只在口语中存在,句子一写出来,歧义就消除了.1.2 同形同音异义词歧义  在词典中分属不同词条,发音相同,形状相同,而意义不同的词,叫做同形同音异义词.如:bank(河岸;银行);bark(树皮;吠);base(基础;卑鄙的);bear(忍受;熊);ear(耳朵;穗);fine(美好的;罚金);lean(倾斜;瘦的);pupil(学生;瞳孔);seal(海豹;封蜡);spring(春天;弹跳)等.这些词在交谈中也会造成歧义.如:  They wentto the bank last Saturday.  听话人可以理解为:他们上周六去了银行,或他们上周六去了河岸.所以,句子表示的是歧义现象,属词汇歧义句,在没有上下文的情况下,两种理解都是成立的.1.3 连音造成歧义  在说话过程中连音,造成相连的词或词组之间的音位切分的变化,也会造成歧义.如词组anice man和an ice-man,它们的音位切分均可描述为[nais mn],但a nice man为“一个好人”,而anice-man为“零售冰的人”.同样,如a name(一个名字)与an aim(一个目的);Iscream(我尖叫)与icecream(冰淇淋)等都属此类情况.2 词汇歧义  词汇歧义(Lexical Ambiguity)是一种潜在的歧义,主要表现为一词多义和同形异义两个方面.2.1 一词多义  一个词有两个或两个以上的意义,这些意义之间常有某种内在的联系,并在词典中归属一个词条的,称该词为一词多义.一词多义在造成词汇歧义中起着很重要的作用,特别是在脱离语境或语境不明确的情况下尤为如此.  (1)He broke his glasses yesterday.  由于glasses可以指“玻璃杯”,也可表示“眼镜”,故句子就有两种理解:他昨天把玻璃杯打碎了;他昨天把眼镜打碎了.  (2)Whereisthe button?  句中button同样可有两种解释,表示“纽扣”或“开关”,所以句子也有两种意义:扣子在哪里?开关在哪里?  有些多义词甚至具有两个相反的词义,如wear这个词,既可表示“耐穿”、“耐磨”的意思,又有“磨损”、“穿破”的意思;同样,overlook可表示“检查”、“监督”,也可表示“看漏”、“忽略”,所以下面的句子可以有意思相反的解释:  (3)This material won’t wear.  这种材料不耐磨;这种材料不会磨损.  (4)Ioverlooked the printer’s errors.  我检查了印刷错误;我忽略了印刷错误.多义词词义不同,词性也可不同.例如:  (5)The woman talking to her manageris a sweetsaleswoman.  这里sweet作为形容词,可表示“亲切的”、“和蔼的”意思,但作为名词,表示“糖果”,所以句子可有两种解释:正在与经理谈话的这个人是一个和蔼可亲的售货员;正在与经理谈话的这个人是一个糖果售货员.  (6)Time flies.  句中time为多义词,可作名词,表示“时间”,也可作动词,表示“测定……的时间”,而fly是同形异义词,它可以是动词,表示“(时间)飞逝”,也可以是名词“苍蝇”,因此,此句句义可以为:光阴似箭(Timeflieslike an arrow.);测定苍蝇飞行的速度.词类的不同既影响词义,又影响了句子的结构,出现了歧义交叉混合现象.当句义为“光阴似箭”时,句子属SV结构[主-动结构],即time为名词作主语,flies为不及物动词作谓语.句义为“测定苍蝇飞行的速度”时,是一个祈使句,为(S)VO结构[(主)-动-宾结构],time为及物动词作谓语,flies为名词复数作宾语.  有些词组也存在多种意义.如:He’s runningafter after可表示“追求”,也可表示“追(逐)”,句子可译成:他在追(求)她,或者他在追(赶)她.如果将after her作为介词短语,则句子的意思是:他在她后面跑着.2.2 同形异义  同形异义词可分为3类,除了上面提到的同音异形异义词、同形同音异义词外,还包括同形异音异义词,如bow(弓;鞠躬);lead(铅;皮带);sewer(阴沟;缝纫者);tear(眼泪;撕开)等.它们通常形状相同,但却是两个或两个以上意义完全不相关  的词,在词典里一般都被列入单独的词条.  (1)Isawher duck.  这里duck为同形异义词,它可以是名词“鸭子”,也可以是动词“突然潜入水中”.故句子有两种理解:我看见了她的鸭子;我看见她潜入水中.  同样,词类的不同,造成此句结构的变化,duck为名词时,句子为SVO结构[主-动-宾结构],duck为动词时,句子为SVOC结构[主-动-宾-补结构],因而也触发语法歧义.  (2)Isawthempass the portthis morning.  句中pass为多义词,可以表示“经过”,也可以表示“传递”,而port是同形异义词,它可以是名词“港口”,也可以是名词“葡萄酒”,这样,句子也有两种解释:今天早晨我看见他们经过港口;今天早晨我看见他们传喝葡萄酒.3 语法歧义    语法歧义(Grammatical Ambiguity)又称为结构歧义,语言的歧义性主要以结构方面最为突出,表现在相同的表层结构可能有两个或两个以上的深层结构,因而有不同的解释.  (1)He greeted his teacher with a smile.  句中介词短语with asmile可以作状语修饰谓语动词greeted,也可以作定语修饰宾语histeacher,句子可以理解为:     [主-动-宾结构]  他迎接带着微笑的老师.(介词短语with asmile归属histeacher.)  (2)We are visiting scholars.  这里,visiting可作为限定动词的一部分,与are构成现在进行时,也可为非限定动词(即现在分词)作定语,修饰scholars,即:        (3)She caughtthe boy waiting for her daughter.此句可作以下两种结构分析:    可见,这里句子所造成的歧义,除了catch一词多义(抓住,撞见)外,还涉及句子的结构.  当句子为[主-动-宾-补]结构时,句义为:  She caught the boy in the act of waiting for herdaughter.  她撞见了那个男孩在等她的女儿.(waiting forher daughter的动作执行者是the boy.)当句子为[主-动-宾-状]结构时,句义为:  She caughtthe boy while she was waiting for herdaughter.  她在等她女儿时,抓住了那个男孩子.(waiting for her daughter这一动作的发出者是she.)  (4)Flying planes can be dangerous.  这是一个大家熟悉的歧义句,句意可以为:  ①To fly planes can be dangerous.  驾驶飞机可能是危险的.  ②Planesthat are flying can be dangerous.正在飞行的飞机可能是危险的.  此句的歧义是由flying planes引起的.在例句①中,flying planes为动宾结构,即flying是动名词(fly vt.驾驶),与planes构成动名词短语,在句中作主语.在例句②中,flying是现在分词(fly vi.飞行)作定语,在句中修饰planes,两者构成修饰关系,flying planes为名词短语作主语.  可见,句子的歧义是由结构成分的不同归属、句中单词不同组合的可能性或不同的结构层次等引起的.4 语用歧义  语言结构形式在实际运用中表现出的不同的意图或含义等,称为语用歧义(Pragmatical Ambiguity).    (1)Mr.Smith telephoned his father that he didnot knowthe truth.  史密斯先生打电话给他父亲,说他不了解真相.  在这个句子中,宾语从句中的代词he可以指Mr.Smith,也可以指Mr.Smith’s father,产生了照应歧义,即有两个照应对象,所以句子也有两种理解:  史密斯先生打电话给他父亲,说他自己并不了解真相;史密斯先生打电话给他父亲,说他父亲并不了解真相.  (2)Those textbooks cost$6.  这里,those textbooks可以分散地指称,强调那些教科书中的每一本,也可以集合指称,把thosetextbooks视为一整体,因此句子可有下面两种理解:  ①Each ofthose textbooks cost$6.  那些教科书每本售价6美元.  ②Those textbooks cost$6 altogether.  所有那些教科书售价6美元.   (3)Tomwanted money morethan Mary.  此句也有两种理解:  ①Tom wanted money more than Mary(wanted money).  汤姆比王马丽更想要钱.  ②Tom wanted money more than(he wanted)Mary.  在钱和王马丽之间,汤姆更想要的是钱.    句子的歧义是由于在省略的比较状语从句中,Mary可以是主格也可以是宾格造成的.5 结束语  歧义是一种普遍的语言现象,它涉及语言的方方面面.歧义研究有助于具体而生动地认识语言结构及其运行规律,了解语言各层面之间的关系,以便能按照语言的规律去学习语言. 参考文献 [1] 章振邦,等.新编英语语法教程[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1983.[2] 林汝昌,等.语义学入门[M].武汉:华中理工大学出版社,1993.[3] 何自然.语用学与英语学习[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1997.[4] 邱述德.英语歧义[M].北京:商务印书馆,1998.[5] 戴炜栋,等.简明英语语言学教程[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1989.



转换生成流派出现于二十世纪50年代末,以美国乔姆斯基为代表,运用转换-生成的理论和方法研究语言。其活动中心是在美国麻萨诸塞州的麻省理工学院;另外,在欧洲有一个专门研究转换-生成语法的学术组织,称为"旧大陆生成语言学协会",它是一个国际性的生成学派的组织,于1975年秋成立于荷兰。 1957年乔姆斯基的《句法结构》出版,标志着"转换-生成语法"的诞生。这一理论是建立在理性主义的哲学基础之上的,它完全不同于建立在经验主义基础之上的美国结构主义,因此,它的出现是对当时居于主流地位的美国结构主义语言学的一大挑战,被人称作"乔姆斯基革命"。 转换-生成语法从提出至今已经四十多年了,在这期间,它主要经历了四个阶段: 第一阶段是"古典理论"时期,从1957年到1965年,《句法结构》是这个时期的代表作,有重要影响的理论有短语结构规则、转换规则以及语素音位规则。古典理论最显著的一个特点就是主张语法自主,把语义排除在语法之外,在这一点上与此前流行的结构语言学的理论是一致的。 第二阶段是"标准理论"时期,从1965年到1971年,代表作是《句法理论要略》,其语法包括四部分规则,即基础部分、转换部分、语义部分和语音部分。标准理论中最引人注目的修正是把语义纳入到语法中来,提出语法结构有深层和表层之别,深层结构决定语义,他通过转换规则而转化为表层结构。这一修正使它跟古典理论有了原则区别。 第三阶段是"扩展的标准理论"时期,从1972年到1979年,1972年出版的《深层结构、表层结构和语义解释》标志着这一时期的开始,而以1977年出版的《关于形式和解释的论文集》为代表,则对这一时期的理论又作了一些修正,因而也称为"修正的扩展的标准理论"。1972年的主要变化在于表层结构对语义解释也起一定的作用,而在1977年的理论中,语义解释则被全部放到了表层。此外,这一阶段还提出了"虚迹"的理论。 第四阶段是从1979年至今,以《支配和约束论集》为代表。这本书是根据乔姆斯基1979年在意大利比萨的一次学术会议上提出的"支配"和"约束"理论整理成的。这一阶段的理论有两个重大变化:一是在原来的规则系统之外增加了原则系统,二是提出了"虚范畴"。目前,支配和约束理论仍然处于不断的修正和发展中。 转换-生成语法强调对人的语言能力作出解释,而不是仅仅描写语言行为,它要研究的是体现在人脑中的认知系统和普遍语法。乔姆斯基认为"语言"不是实际存在的东西,这个概念是从语法中派生出来的,只有语法才是实际存在的,因此,转换-生成语法研究的对象是语法而不是语言。另外,转换-生成语法采用的是现代数理逻辑的形式化方法,根据有限的公理化的规则系统和原则系统用演绎的方法生成无限的句子,以此来解释人类的语言能力。所以说,转换-生成语法无论是在研究目的、研究对象,还是在研究方法上都和传统语言学、结构主义语言学有原则的区别。它为语言研究开辟了一条新的道路,展现了一个全新的发展方向,使语言学以新的面貌呈现于世。它对其他人文社会科学的发展也产生了重要的影响。 转换-生成学派的研究还包括生成音系学,它是生成语法学的一个分支,其任务是研究人头脑中的音系知识。生成音系学从酝酿、形成到标准理论,直至现在的非线性理论,一共也经历了四个发展阶段。代表人物有雅科布逊、哈勒、乔姆斯基等。1952年,雅科布逊、哈勒等人合写的《言语分析初探》、1956年乔姆斯基、哈勒等合写的《英语的重音与音渡》以及1968年乔姆斯基和哈勒共同撰写的《英语语音模式》分别是前三个阶段的代表性著作。《英语语音模式》中提出的标准理论使生成音系学在60年代的美国音系学中居于主流地位。1975年以后,生成音系学进入非线性理论时期,演化出各种名目的音系学,如自主音段音系学、节律音系学、词汇音系学等。在这一时期,乔姆斯基退出了音系学领域的研究而专攻句法,哈勒则仍是这一领域的旗手。 生成形态学也是转换-生成学派的一个研究范畴。乔姆斯基在"论名物化"一文中首先确定了形态学在生成语法中的特定作用,哈勒于1973年进一步提出了生成形态学的第一个明晰的模式,继而西格尔、杰肯道夫、阿罗诺夫等人跟进,又对生成形态学的模式作了一些改进。 总之,转换-生成学派以语法为研究目的,各个分支学科的研究都服从于这个目的,同时又都对各自领域的研究产生了重大影响。转换-生成学派的影响不仅体现在语言学方面,在其它学科,如计算机科学、人工智能以及认知科学等方面都产生了一定的反响。乔姆斯基认为,转换生成语法将促进认知科学的发展,并把语言学的研究和神经科学、心理学以及生物学等学科的研究结合起来,共同为探索人脑的奥秘作出贡献。 乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky,1928--),美国语言学家,转换-生成语法的创始人。1928年12月7日出生于美国宾西法尼亚州的费城。1947年,在哈里斯的影响下他开始研究语言学。1951年在宾西法尼亚大学完成硕士论文《现代希伯莱语语素音位学》,1955年又在该校完成博士论文《转换分析》,获得博士学位。从1955年秋天开始,他一直在麻省理工学院工作,曾任该校语言学与哲学系主任,并任该校认知科学研究中心主任,为语言学界培养了一批有素养的学者。 乔姆斯基是一位富有探索精神的语言学家。最初,他用结构主义的方法研究希伯莱语,后来发现这种方法有很大的局限性,转而探索新的方法,逐步建立起转换-生成语法,1957年出版的《句法结构》就是这一新方法的标志。这种分析方法风靡全世界,冲垮了结构语言学的支配地位,因而被人们称为"乔姆斯基革命"。后来他又不断丰富和发展转换-生成语法的理论和方法,相继发表了《句法理论要略》、《深层结构、表层结构和语义解释》、《支配和约束论集》等重要著作,对世界语言学的发展方向产生了巨大的影响。现在,转换-生成语法仍在继续发展之中。 乔姆斯基是美国当代一位有重大影响的语言学家,美国芝加哥大学、芝加哥洛约拉大学、英国伦敦大学都授予他名誉博士学位。乔姆斯基的学说不仅在语言学界,而且在哲学界、心理学界等很多领域也都有相当大的影响;计算机科学的兴起和发展也与乔姆斯基的语言理论有密切的关系,甚至有人称他为计算机科学的"老祖宗"。